From A Management Perspective To Assess How The Rfid Technology, Value

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Since the analysis of scholars and experts RFID Application until the following labels will be reduced to five cents U.S. began to flourish, the fifth of the money has become something of a magic number, and the success of RFID tags also seems tied to whether the continued decline in costs to meet everyone the expectations of five cents, but the price tag should not be about the decision-making basis for enterprises to adopt RFID or restrictions.

From the perspective of economics or management, profit = (price? Unit cost) * Sell Volume? Other costs is an identity, the profit from the difference between revenue and costs, while the profit maximization has become management targets. Therefore, whether the management practices or IT Tools, are all committed to reducing the various costs (operating costs, inventory costs, raw materials and labor and other direct costs) or to enhance product competitiveness in the market (higher quality, perceived value and volume) to achieve this goal. Any management approach or tool, can also be based on their cost of investment required, risk, and is expected to raise prices or sales volume to assess their return on investment (ROI).

Cost point of view, although the use of RFID labeling because of the relationship between the unit costs caused by higher costs but can be assessed from the following number is expected to bring cost-effective:

1. Inventory costs: raw materials, WIP and finished goods inventory costs. RFID can help managers be more accurate to control the production line, in-transit inventory and retail end, to avoid duplication provides raw materials such as waste materials and improve inventory turnover, inventory management, but also can reduce labor costs.

2. Wait Cost: To be expected in the process or wait for the time spent in manual processing. As the RFID sensor with automatic features, so check out the goods, quantity and checking can replace the manual process and avoid or omissions due to lack of manpower caused by the waiting cost.

3. Communication cost: the cost of the confirmation message that the two sides, such as fax, wait for a response time. Through RFID automation functions, the delivery or immediately after receiving confirmation, and by using the system immediately Electronic E-mail, EDI, FTP, SMS messages and other means to inform, communicate substantially reduce the time and cost required.

4. Quality costs: refer to in order to maintain quality of the prior, and after a matter of cost. Ju Fan in the work order process, material, assembly confirmed the shipment order items, quantity, delivery location to confirm, etc., can use RFID to confirm. In extreme cases such as medical drugs, the cost of errors that could lead to injury or even death, it is difficult to estimate the cost of its quality. RFID can serve as quality at every stage of the goalkeeper, to reduce the production of any human error, thereby reducing cost of quality.

5. Stockout cost: As the shelves out of stock replenishment is not an immediate opportunity costs arising. RFID can be the number of real-time monitoring of goods shelves, when given immediately below the safety stock replenishment may notice, and may monitor the replenishment process, implementation of products added to our operation.

Therefore the overall cost can be managed by reducing the cost to cover the cost of tags, the remaining part of the overall costs if less than the original, the overall efficiency will improve.

Us from a revenue perspective, the first price, the price can be said that the extension of consumer perceived value, if the application of RFID products can enhance the perceived value to customers, then the cost can be tagged transferred or shared by consumers, such as traceability applications, consumers may be willing to spend more money to more secure Food , Then by the application of RFID products to provide security for the appeal may form a special brand through packaging and marketing to improve the value of the product itself.

Sales of the product or brand is the result of competitive, RFID applications will improve the efficiency or quality-related applications, such as the application of RFID in the logistics industry to provide a shorter, more accurate delivery of quality, to improve customer satisfaction and greater competitiveness to our customer base. These are the views from the income, sales by value and improve to increase overall profits.

Can be seen, the cost, the label is relative rather than absolute, and can find where the benefit is key to assessing the value of RFID. Therefore, the present application is not the biggest bottleneck encountered high price tag, but the expected benefits and the import can not be precisely assessed, the reasons are often caused by a chronic shortage of domestic enterprises due to a systematic performance evaluation and experience can not wait until the needs assessment to formulate a correct assessment methods, but also the lack of accurate historical data for comparison.

We recommend intention to import the enterprise need not rigidly adhere to the so-called RFID tags or the cost of hardware, first the structure of benefits arising from the source to find hope and, through internal and external discussions that can effectively assess the performance indicators (PerformanceIndicator) , and discussions with manufacturers to develop a reasonable testing program, and indeed different records of the indicators before and after application, so contribute to a more concrete and effective way to make a decision on whether to adopt RFID. We also hope that the implementation of the public areas of the current proof of concept or demonstration projects to provide more advance in the plan and return on investment after the evaluation results for companies interested in importing as a reference.

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Categories: business

Golden Rules Of Project Management

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In every project management story there is somehow some failures and unfinished tasks. This is only natural and can be resolve if you will only take your responsibility well and apply the right kind of project management. If you want to make your story a success then youd better learn some of the golden rules about it. Read this article to find out more about it.

It is important that you fully understand the golden rules of project management as these will serve as your guide to make your plans and projects succeed. Not all leaders and managers understand these part of project management so it is no longer a surprise issue whenever one of them fails. So to help you out I gathered some of the most important rules regarding this matter.

Here are some of the most important golden rules of project management:

1. Never be afraid to take the risk

This is one of the most important rules you must consider if you want to succeed in your project. This is actually the first rule of project management you must not ignore. As we all know, things might happen along the way. Sometimes big mistakes take over in just as we are already a few more steps away from the finish line. But this is again natural. Never be afraid to take the risks and you will surely be able to succeed on your project management.

2. Identify the possible risks that may affect your project

Although it may sounds too complex, it would be very helpful if you will try to identify the possible risks that might cause further problems to your project. This is one of the most important rules of project management. It is important to set an open mind and see some possible risks that might affect your plans in the long run. One of the best ways to do this is to talk to your team and ask if they happen to notice some possible risks growing around the projects. Having this kind of project management approach, you and your team will surely attain success in no time at all.

3. Communication is a must

You can only attain success from your project management if you will keep your communication slot open at all times. It is important that you provide give and take relationships between you and your team. You may be the leader but there are times you must learn how to listen to your members because they might have the best idea that could actually help your project attain success. Talk and listen with each other is actually one of the best rules of project management.

These golden rules about project management are what you and your team need. These rules will not only help you lead your team well but it will also provide the kind of results you want from your project management. So the next time you set up a project make sure to apply these rules as well as the right approach of project management.

Wishing you the best in your projects
Project Management Club - Lead Don't Follow

Categories: management

Hiring a Telecom Expense Management Company

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Telecom service has become an indispensable requirement for most businesses in the world. Without quality telecom service, you can have many problems handling your business communication. You can have issues contacting regular customers and prospecting potential clients. Internally, poor telecom service results in a gap of communication among employees of your company. Therefore, telecom services such as phone, wireless devices, etc. are essential for the growth of your business. But, out of control telecom expenses are also a problem that can only be properly addressed using the services of a professional Telecom Expense Management Company.

What is Telecom Expense Management?

Telecom Expense Management is a financial discipline that involves use of thorough analysis of telecom service orders, telecom auditing, telecom invoice management, mobile device management, telecom bills, bill auditing and telecom inventory management. Telecom Expense Management (TEM) companies help you reduce cost of telecom expenses. Considering the growth rate telecom expenses, many companies hire Telecom Expense Management Company to ensure an efficient and cost effective process is in place.

How Can You Benefit from Using a Telecom Expense Management Service…..

All rational businesses, irrespective to their size and scope will seek to eliminate unnecessary expenses that will slow their company’s growth and progresses unnecessary expenses in your business put additional burden on its budget. Hence, managers should apply all strategies that could minimize the unnecessary expenses of your company.

Use of telecom services is indispensable in all business organizations. Without telecom services, it is impossible to smoothly run a business. In business, you have to make a deal with customers and clients using phone or other means of telecommunications.

While usage of telecom means is required in business, the growing cost of telecom services puts extra pressure on the budget. The telecom expenses that your company experiences in a month or year includes: excessive usages, waste and errors that should be identified and corrected. Whether your employees productively use telecom service in your company or they just abuse it unproductively, you should know how telecom services are being used in your company. Since, it’s very time consuming to do manually; it is a good decision to hire a Telecom Expense Management Company.

Telecom Expense Management predominantly involves application of software tools and systematic analysis of usages of telecom means in your company. The TEM company is an expert at finding cost savings from unnecessary and unauthorized items within asset portfolios or usage of telecom service. TEM consultants use technical expertise and systematically study and monitor flow of calls in and out of your company – together with telecom auditing and analysis of all factors influencing your telecom use and expense. Optimizing the critical phone and wireless assets and usage will allow budgets to divert to more valuable business development objectives.

Kitty Vo is the author of this article on Wireless Expense Management.
Find more information on Wireless Expense Management here.

Categories: company

How do I manage a groin strain injury

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Managing a groin strain injury can be difficult for people that regularly take part in sports and physical exercise. That's because having a groin strain means you have to refrain from sports and exercise until it heals. Even when you return to these activities, there is a risk of re-injury. But how exactly do you spot the symptoms of groin strain and, if diagnosed with the injury, what is the best way to manage it?

Groin strains are most often caused by sudden twisting or side-stepping movements and are common in rugby and football players, as well as runners with bad technique. The symptoms are relatively easy to detect as they involve sharp pains in your lower abdominal or thigh muscles. This pain may evolve into an ache and be accompanied by bruising, swelling or tenderness in the groin area. The sensitive nature of this kind of injury means that it doesn't go unnoticed so the chances of you having a groin strain and not realising it are slim.

If you suspect that you might have a groin strain, visit a doctor, sports medicine specialist or physiotherapist as soon as you can, to prevent the strain from worsening. These experts should be able to tell you exactly what the extent of the damage is and how long your recovery period is likely to be. In all cases of groin strain, rest is essential in order to repair the injury. This means not playing sports or exacerbating the strain by running or strenuous walking.

Once your rest period is over, your specialist is likely to recommend a series of gentle exercises to help you get your groin muscles back in shape and ready to handle exercise once more. They may also recommend massage and, in some cases, a course of pain relief injection therapy. However, it is essential that you do not go back to playing sports until the strain has healed and you experience no more pain in the affected area. Returning too quickly to physical activity means a great chance of developing chronic groin pain, which could hamper your sports-playing abilities for life.

Towards the end of your treatment period, your specialist is also likely to recommend exercises and tips for managing a groin strain in the long-term. Perhaps the simplest but most important advice is to make sure you warm up before exercise and cool down after. Stretching your muscles is helpful in managing groin strain because it increases muscle temperature, making them more pliable while you're playing sports and easing muscle relaxation afterwards.

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Categories: business

How To Engage Employees With Technology Based Change

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When you think about the millions of dollars organizations spend each year on IT programs of work, wouldn't it be prudent knowing that employees actually understand and most importantly embrace the reason behind the changes? There is one way of ensuring that employees and their managers have got the message and truly understand the reasons for the new system implementation. And that is the means that you communicate change.

Let's start with reviewing how most organizations manage technology based change. If your organization's approach to this type of change is new skills training and employee communication strategies that include stakeholder management (translated briefings), intranet and email updates then that's not managing change, rather it is focussed on information. So what is the difference and why do we need to do anything more than provide information?

IT systems are not introduced for the sake of a new system itself, they are introduced because there are benefits to be realised from a business management perspective. This may include more information on customer profiles and identifying other products or services clients may be interested in purchasing, the chagnes might focus on back office systems such as greater information for human resources management or accounting or they may focus on the supply chain and logistics. Whatever the reason there is a business reason for change and this is what employees need to understand if the full benefits of any system implementation is going to be realised.

Let's look at an example. This financial services organisation was introducing a new back office system. In the past employees worked in separate divisions so customers were transferred from one area to another to process their request. The new system meant that all of the customer details were now available to employees and that they would now work in teams and "own" the customer from the commencement to end of transaction. It was a complete system and work style change so before specific system training was introduced a simulated work area was established and employees were taken through the customer experience. It was important that they understood the benefits to the customer by looking at the changes through the eyes of the customer. This way we created the "Aha" moment, employees got the message better than any intranet, information session or email bulletin could have conveyed it. And when employees went into system training they clearly understood the benefits and business reasons behind the changes.

The five key things to remember when communicating technology changes.

1. Be very clear about the business reasons for the changes – who will benefit and what will those benefits be?
2. Establish why those benefits are important? What will the impact be on the organization?
3. Decide the key messages for your information strategy – what will you need to communicate, to whom and when?
4. Concurrently design an engagement strategy at key points in your project plan that will engage employees at all levels in the reason for the technology changes.
5. Remember to ensure engagement the message is not about the system itself but about the business reasons for the changes.

Finally, as change management professionals can we take the same approach to managing system changes and apply it to every new organization? The answer is clearly no because as every organization's culture is different, so it follows that every approach to change management and employee communication must be different to maximise the investment and potential of the system changes that are implemented.

Marcia Xenitelis is a recognized authority on the subject on change management and has spoken at conferences around the world. For access to case studies and more information on the types of strategies you can implement to engage employees visit for a wealth of free informative articles and resources.

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Categories: management

Importance and Impact of Six Sigma in Hotel Industry

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In The Name of God Importance and Impact of Six Sigma in Hotel Industry Maryam nematollahi and Mahsa Soltani Moghaddam

ABSTRACT Six Sigma (SS) is an important management tool in business that many companies are using worldwide to strive for perfection. Total Quality is achieved through SS as it defines a clear road map. Service Quality is the core in hotel management. The hotel has only on choice to remain in the competition; it is nothing but satisfied customers. Considering both sides of enterprises and customers, Six Sigma is a kind of management method which emphasizes flow-oriented performance improvement and takes efficiency as the center on the whole management process. This study reviews the significance and impacts of SS in hotel industry to show if SS can be a good quality tool in hospitality. To approach this, the papers which investigate Six Sigma in hospitality are discussed. As this review emphasizes, Six Sigma is a helpful methodology in hotels because of overcoming shortages, reducing mistakes and increasing satisfied customers. Key words: Six Sigma, DMAIC, services, hospitality, hotel industry

1.INTRODUCTION In a competitive environment, for all industries, whether related to products or services, being static is the danger itself. We need efficiency, but according to Tan, kay Chuan & Chakraborty, Ayon(2009) keeping cost low and becoming more efficient just help us to stay afloat in this very challenging economy. We should actually be ready to hear consumer's sound because it is the only way we can improve, in this way 6 sigma is really helpful. Quality management has long been established as an important strategy for achieving competitive advantage. Traditional quality initiatives such as statistical quality control, zero defects, and total quality management have been key initiatives for many years. Six sigma can be considered as a recent quality improvement initiative that has gained popularity and acceptance in many industries across the globe (Chakrabarty & Chuan Tan, 2007) In recent years 6sigma as a quality improvement methodology has gained considerable attention (Basu, 2004). It introduced by Motorola in 1980s & General Electric popularized it in mid 1990s (Tan, kay Chuan & Chakraborty,Ayon ,2009). 6sigma is a management philosophy & a method starting from customer to reduce waste, enhance the quality level & change financial performance for organizational system (Bo Xiang Ping,WEN Can Hui, FANG Fei,2009). There is a growing recognition that 6 sigma can be applied to non- manufacturing operation. "The results of an extensive literature review on 6sigma in service organizations revealed that much of discussion on implementation issue focus on critical success factors"(Ayon Chakrabarty & Tan Kay Chuan,2009) As hospitality is a service-oriented industry, cutting cost and at the same time having high quality is an important issue that not only guarantees the survival of the service company but also the growth of it. So clear that hotels are not exceptions and need a program to reach this goal. In this article firstly we review 6sigma and its background literature and describe conceptual framework of it, then it is followed by how 6 sigma applied in services especially hotel industry using 9 research paper from 2007 up to now(2012), four of them discussed on Six Sigma in service Organization. the case of one is Singapore. Among 5 other , one is using Six Sigma DMAIC to design a high-quality summer lodge operation, second review the significance and impact of training through SS in hotels, third discussed on hotel giant resorts to SS to improve operation and the others are Application of SS to hotel Service management and SS in hospitality Management. 1.1.Definition Focus on quality measurement is crucial for managers .so, six sigma as a strategy can help them to improve their organizations .six sigma is actually a development of TQM and ISO900 system.(Bo XiangPing, WEN Can Hui, FANG Fei,2009) First, let’s know why we call this strategy by a Greek symbol, sigma and why six? As Iftikhar Ahmed said in his article; "sigma is a statistical term that measures process deviation from the process mean or target. Mean is also referred to as average in common language. The figure of six was arrived statistically by looking at the current average maturity for most business enterprises. It is important to recall that every customer always values consistent and predictable services and /or product with near zero faults. Therefore they experience the variation and not the mean. Mean is their expectation and our target (organizations).(Iftikhar Ahmed,2012) Implementation of six sigma is the key to success. So, it’s necessary to be defined: As Bo, Wea &Fang said: "six sigma is a management philosophy and a method starting from a customer to reduce waste, enhance the quality level and enhance financial performance for organizational system. "(Bo, Wea &Fang, 2009). Another definition stated by Breffni &Kathric is: "six sigma is a disciplined, data-driven approach to quality management. It seeks to improve process consistency, reduce cycle time, increase productivity and decrease overhead costs by eliminating defects, errors and non-value-added steps from a process, no matter it are a manufacturing or service environment."(Breffni & Kathric , 2010). SS tools can assist the organization that all parts moving in the same direction (Lancaster, 2011) The basic philosophy behind six sigma is to reach customers, satisfaction and loyalty to a product or organization through limiting defects in outputs by eliminating wasteful steps and the variation in an operation. "It is actually based on "statistical thinking" paradigm: 1-everything is a process 2-all processes have inherent variability and 3-data is used to understand the variability and drive process improvement decision."(Breffni & Kathric , 2010). Finally, its aim is achieving 3.4 defects per million opportunity and also creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization.(Iftikhar,2012&Lancaster,2011).

Table 1: Six Sigma Conversion Table "Long Term Yield" (basically the percentage of successful outputs or operation) % Defects per million opportunities (DPMO)Process sigma 99.999663.46 99.982335 99.46,2104 93.366,8073 69.1308,5382 30.9691,4621

1.2.History of Six Sigma "The roots of six sigma as a measurement standard can be traced back to Carl Fredrick Gauss (1777-1855) who introduced the concept of the normal curve. SS as a measurement standard in product variation can be traced to the 1920s when Walter Shewhart showed that three sigma from the mean is the point where a process requires correction. The credit for coining the term "six sigma "goes to a Motorola engineer named Bill Smith in the early and mid-1980s with chairman Bob Galvin at the helm. Motorola engineers decided that the traditional quality levels measuring defects in thousands of opportunities didn’t provide enough granularity .instead; they wanted to measure the defect per million opportunities. Motorola developed this new standard and created the methodology and needed cultural change associated with it. SS helped Motorola realize powerful bottom-line results in their organization; in fact, they documented more than$16 billion in savings as a result of SS efforts."(Iftikhar Ahmed, 2012) Besides Motorola, GE also saved $900 million across1997-1998, Honeywell International $2 billion (in direct cost) from 1994 to 2000.(Breffni & kathrik, 2010) As Justin M.Lancaster said in his article: "the road map at which six sigma identifies problems and inefficiencies and solves them is the DMAIC. The acronym stands for Define, Measure, Analyze, Implement, and Control. The DMAIC tool seeks to "decrease variation in the process by identifying and improving specific areas"".(Lancaster2011)


The most important goal of this study is to find out the importance of using SS as a quality tool in hotel industry. This survey is done to investigate whether SS is useful and practical in hospitality industry. 3.DMAIC in detail D stands for defining the goals of the improvement of activity .in this step, the main activities of the process should be shown that process maps or flow charts can help stands for measure; in this step valid or reliable metrics used to monitor process towards the goals defined in the first step. Besides, data related to current process is collected for establishing the base line performance of the process. A stands for analyzing the data for trends, patterns, causal relationships and "root cause "of the problems in the process. I stand for improving ways to remedy problems in the process. The output of this step is a streamlined "should be "process map and finally C stands for controlling the process improvement. (Breffni & karthic, 2010; Heathor 2010). DMAIC should be believed, trained and involved by all members of the organization in teams. (Lancaster2011) In the SS in hotels a good example of applying DMAIC is given (Stout’ Island lodge). Again, before explaining how SS is useful in service organizations and specially its usage in hotel industry it’s better to describe: critical success factors (CSFs), critical -to quality (CTQ) characteristics, sets of tools and techniques (STTs) and key performance indicators (KPIs). CSFs are the essential ingredients required for success of SS projects in an organization. Management commitment, team training, corporate culture, belt system and customer focused are some examples of these factors. CTQ is a measurable quality characteristic of products or services with the aim of satisfying customers, needs. It is actually generated from critical customer requirements derived from the customers, voice. KPI: it is a measure of performance in terms of costs, quality yield and capacity. STT is considered the same as DMAIC. (Ayon Chakrabarty & Tan Kay Chuan,2009)

4.SIX SIGMA IN SERVICES The real economy in the countries involves such fields as financial services, health care, e-commerce, and logistics, but less manufacturing, which has tended to move offshore to low-cost locations. Six Sigma can be used in this case to decreases the costs of poor quality so that a more consistent process for service delivery may be achieved. Another important reason for the introduction of the six sigma strategy in many service companies is that customers of today feel "process variability" in the delivery of the service provided and not just on "process average or mean". The objective of a six sigma strategy is to reduce "process variability" around the acceptable target service performance (Antony et al, 2007). Using SS starts from manufacturing and then reached service organizations and the roots of Six Sigma are in industries that are heavy on producing and manufacturing items. In services ,health care and banking were the pioneers and then gradually other services like software, schools , transportation, hotel and lodging used it.(Bo,Fang,Wen,2009;Tan,Chakraborty,2009). The objective of a six sigma strategy in service processes is to understand how defects occur and then to devise process improvements to eliminate the happening of such defects which enhance the overall customer experience and thereby improve customer satisfaction (Jiju Antony,2007) Due to the deep manufacturing roots, there are pre-conceived notions by some that Six Sigma cannot work in the service industries. But many service enterprises show the advantages of using SS. A number of service organizations exemplify the advantages of SS. Citibank, for example, applied SS to streamline and mistake proof a number of its business process (Breffni M.Noone etal. 2010). According to Jiju Antony et al (2007) Service-oriented businesses adopting a six sigma business strategy will have the following benefits: - Improved cross-functional teamwork throughout the entire organization; - Transformation of the organizational culture from fire-fighting mode to fire- prevention mode; - Increased employee morale; -Reduced number of non-value added steps in critical business processes through Systematic elimination, leading to faster delivery of service; - Reduced cost of poor quality (costs associated with late delivery, customer complaints, misdirected problem solving, etc.); -Increased awareness of various problem solving tools and techniques, leading to greater job satisfaction for employees; - Improved consistency level of service through systematic reduction of variability in processes; and -Effective management decisions due to reliance on data and facts rather than assumptions and gut-feelings. After initial success in healthcare and banking, Six Sigma has gradually gained traction in other types of service industries, including hotels and lodging which is discussed in this paper in detail. It is worth mentioning according to Ayon Chakrabarty &Tan Kay Chuan (2009):" for six sigma to succeed, management commitment is very important. Management must not only support SS but they must show that they are into it. There are some problems, some obstacle along the way which the team members at their levels cannot resolve, so management has to step in."

5.SIX SIGMA IN HOTELS Hotel industry deals with the customer non-stop, day and night, where the smallest mistake may cause dissatisfaction of the guest and in this way we simply lose a customer. The customers in hotel seek convenience and mistake proof services, Six Sigma decrease the errors to the least and increase customer satisfaction & loyalty. "Six Sigma DMAIC methodology implementations, specifically, in the hotel industry are non-existent" (Kumar, Phillips, & Rupp, 2009 p.173). The hospitality industry is dynamic, in which a given property may have a several departments that provide and manage different amenities. The tendency seems to be that these departments often operate as many different little businesses. For example, the marketing department may launch a new campaign that the gaming department may not know that. The convention sales department may roll out a new all-inclusive meeting package that the hotel reservations department is unaware of. Six Sigma principles foster open communication and collaboration amongst all departments ( lancaster , 2011). Justin M.Lancaster(2011) described the implementation of Six Sigma step by step. The following seven phases provide a roadmap and process in which to implement the programs: Phase1: Envisioning Goal: obtaining corporate support for Six Sigma Phase2: Strategizing This stage requires the formation of structure that will carry out Six Sigma program. The key to phase 2 is to have the complete infrastructure SS leaders in place to carry out the problem. Phase 3: Developing The black belt or six sigma managers will work with the green belts to identify projects and process to analyze. Phase4: Implementation Goal of this phase is to get some projects running, and to begin to create an environment in which the principle of Six Sigma are intertwined into the everyday operation.

Phase 5: Improving In this stage, the success of the program is analyzed. Six Sigma leadership will need to determine if the projects have been successful in making the operation more efficient and if a culture change is occurring.

Phase 6: Sustaining This phase is the execution of maintaining the successes of the program , and to overcome the failures. Employees who have refused to have embraced the program will have to be addressed at this time.

Phase7: Abandonment This can occur at any time of the process. It can happen for a number of reasons. One is the inability to create and maintain an infrastructure of strong committed leaders to carry out the program. This is truly the skeleton to the programs’ body.

At least one organization in the hotel industry, Starwood Hotels implemented Six Sigma in 2001. As a result of then implementation, that included launching 3500 Six Sigma projects at Starwood hotels worldwide, the company realized some quick financial wins. Incremental revenue increased 19% and overall spending by customers while staying at the properties increased by nearly 12% in the few months after implementation. By centralizing the spa reservations group by utilizing tools of Six Sigma, Starwood claimed a revenue increase from 91 to 141 million pounds. Actually, Starwood Hotels and Resorts, one of the largest hotel chains in terms of revenue, was the first hospitality giant to embrace Six Sigma. It adopted the method to develop innovative, customer-focused solutions and to transfer these solutions throughout the global organization (Justin M. Lancaster, 2011). "Six Sigma gives us the tools to eliminate variation and improve efficiency," said Denise Coll, regional vice president of Starwood’s New England operations. "It has strong record in manufacturing productivity, perhaps most visibly at General Electric (GE). It’s also extremely adaptable; since its introduction at Starwood, we’ve refined it dramatically to reflect our focus on service quality and satisfying the voice of the customer."(Tan, Kay Chuan and Chakraborty Ayon ,2009)

Although experience suggests the success of SS amongst many departments within a hotel, Starwood is the only hospitality organization to fully implement SS, into all aspects of the operation. So what is the reason of reluctance toward SS in Hospitality? The first one maybe the importance of setting up an infrastructure of trained leaders in SS. Another possible reason is that managers in the hospitality industry are not necessarily adept or see the need to analyze statistics and root causes to problems. The third one is the requirement of a commitment at all levels of organizations. The other reason is the stigma that these programs are only applicable in production and manufacturing environments. The largest obstacle to SS not becoming more prevalent in hospitality is that it requires a culture change, and demands a new way of thinking. (Justin M. Lancaster, 2011). One example at Starwood is that, Starwood team members used Six Sigma to formulate one program called "Unwind", it suggest complimentary massage to the guests and prompt them to gather in the lobby in order to meet and mingle, Which was a good surprise to Starwood as increase the revenue 30% over the previous year. Another program, Star Meeting Concierge, grew from another Six Sigma project. The hotels now provide a meeting concierge assigned to a Meeting Organizer as a permanent point of contact, on hand to welcome delegates, explain how the technology works, anticipate needs and respond quickly to any requests for assistance, ensuring the best service. Outside meeting planners are given business cards with the photo of their concierge so they can recognize them in an area where several meeting groups may be gathered. The result was interesting, 95% of meeting planners rated their concierge’s responsiveness as excellent (Chuan and Ayon, 2009)

Sameer Kumar et al.(2009) used DMIAC tools to redesign an improved service system for a summer lodge operation in the Midwest United States in order to ensure that they can consistently deliver the high-quality product to their customer expects. Five phases of DMAIC are used to decrease the defects and create an improved service blueprint. After defining, in second phase (measure) Survqual survey is applied and the gaps make obvious. In the analyze phase, By fishbone diagram defects in reservation system (e.g. Not connected to Online Booking System-requires manual entry only) , people ( current budget does not allow for 24/7 staffing to take reservation) and methods ( limited reservation taking capacity in season, and inconsistent handling in off season) are decided.

Improvement phase implies proposed service process for Stout’s Island Lodge. It suggest both phone and online reservation and 24/7 process.

In the Control Phase, a plan would be established for continuous training, investment in top quality workforce and investment in systems and support.

And finally, what is the importance and Impact of training Through Six Sigma in hotels? Iftikhar Ahmed (2012) believed that "Training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, and rules or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of employees. Training leads to skilled behavior. Training is one of those factors which helps in increasing the employee commitment and promotes long term employment. Six Sigma is applied to enhance employee efficiency and customer satisfaction. In modern Hotel business, the issue of competence and qualities in people is important. How well a Service is done, depends on the quality of employees. Knowledge, skills and thoughts are these qualities that lead to a hotel survival and development. So, staff training increases productivity while employees are armed with professional knowledge , experienced skills and valid thought. In case of training, Six sigma reduces the employees turnover and helps in increasing balance in employee’s work-life. Some of the department, areas/processes where this approach may add value: (i)throughout the hotel operation (ii)From office operations/ sales & marketing (iii)Food & beverage service / production (kitchen) (iv)Accommodation operation(housekeeping) (v)Purchase / store department (vi)Human Resource Now, what can be the impact of Six Sigma Training? "After undergoing SS training , one’s entire thought process changes & the person starts looking at problems as opportunities and current process/ work as improvement areas. It changes the entire attitude & way of looking at things, wherein one starts thinking "Out Of the Box". Also implementing the SS learning at work / profession makes one streamline work better, thus increasing work efficiency & effectiveness leading to a higher level of professional satisfaction & growth." (Iftikhar Ahmed,2012)

6.CONCLUSION In the world of hospitality, Success equals Customer Satisfaction. Hotel industry does not have any choice but being Customer oriented. Actually in service industry Customer (guest) is a king. If the hotel wants to be successful, it has to take care of its customer. Since its introduction by Motorola in the 1980s, Six Sigma and its philosophy have found widespread application in many manufacturing industries. It has also inspired applications in service industries (Chakrabarty & Chuan Tan, 2007). Although SS firstly used for manufacturing firms, researches show it can be helpful in services, too. Health care, banking, schools and transportation profited of it. Gradually hospitality and specifically hotel industry learned the benefits of SS. Six Sigma is a viable option to enhancing operational efficiency in hospitality organizations (Lancaster, 2011) In this world of competition, growth and survival of a hotel depends on keeping its guests. Today, Customers don’t ignore the errors; they seek the best not good. SS helps hotels to reduce their mistake and make the customer more and more satisfied, as experienced in Starwood, SS was their tool to overcome the shortages of services. Necessary to know satisfied customers return with a friend, non-satisfied customers don’t and live to tell someone else about it (Ahmed, 2012). REFERENCES Ahmed Iftikhar(2012), Significance and Impact of Training through Six Sigma in Hotels VSRD-IJBMR, Vol. 2 (7), 2012, 374-386.

Antony Jiju, Antony Frenie Jiju, Kumar Maneesh , Rae Cho Byung, (2007),"Six sigma in service organizations: Benefits, challenges and difficulties, common myths, empirical observations and success factors", International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 24 Iss: 3 pp. 294 31

Chakrabarty Ayon, Tan Kay Chuan, (2007),"The current state of six sigma application in services", Managing Service Quality, Vol. 17 Iss: 2 pp. 194 208.

Chakrabarty Ayon, Kay Chuan Tan, (2009),"An exploratory qualitative and quantitative analysis of Six Sigma in service organizations in Singapore", Management Research News, Vol. 32 Iss: 7 pp. 614 632.

Kumar, Sameer et al,(2009), Using Six Sigma DMAIC to design a high-quality summer lodge operation Journal of Retail & Leisure Property Vol. 8, 3, 173 191.

Lancaster Justin.M (2011), Lean and Six Sigma in hospitality Organizations: Benefits, Challenges, and Implementation UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones by an authorized administrator of Digital Scholarship @UNLV.

Noone, Breffni M & Namasivayam, Karthik, Tomlinson Heather Spitler (2010), Examining the application of six sigma in the service exchange , Management Service Quality, Vol 20

Tan, Kay Chuan and Chakraborty, Ayon (2009) Room for improvement : hotel giant resorts to Six Sigma to improve operations. Six Sigma Forum Magazine, 9(1). pp. 20-24.

XiangPing BO, Canhui WEN, Fei FANG (2009), Application of Six Sigma to Hotel Service Management , 978-1-4244-4639-1/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE

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Importance Of Construction Management (1)

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This article focuses on tips and techniques on construction management and further sheds light on this exciting field. Many a time we hear stories of people who had a bad experience with a construction contractor. People complain of delays, overshot estimates, shoddy workmanship, mismanagement etc.

Construction management is the key to the solutions of such problems. In today's fast paced world time is the essence. Therefore it is important that projects are completed on time and within budget because delays are costly and overshot budgets can lead to a lack of funds, thereby causing financial problems for the contractor and the client.

Managing a project is an art and today we will take a look into some of the aspects of a successful project manager. How a project manager thinks is crucial to the success and outcome of the project.

The first rule is "never over commit". Over commitment as tempting as it maybe, is very detrimental. The client would plan out his activities as per your prescribed date and when that would not be achieved there would be a problem for both you and the client.

The second important point is "Plan!" Planning is essential to project management. Prepare a detailed schedule of activities after carefully analyzing the chain or sequence of events. Then dive into each event and further sub plan tasks within that event. The more detailed your plan is, the higher are your chances of delivering a successful project. For example if you have to plaster and then paint your walls, you would naturally first jot down plaster then paint in your schedules. Then estimate the time for completion of plaster by referring to a labor analysis book such as the DAR or through experience or knowledge of others.

Sub plan further by estimating material requirements, and then delegating tasks to specific people or vendors for material procurement. Put down a date for checking the activities on site for quality. Take a buffer for one or two days to safeguard against unforeseen circumstances. Check the list of national holidays and see of they could in any way interfere with work on a particular day, then account for that particular delay in your schedule. Next move on to paint and repeat the steps above. You can see how detailed each activity can get and this is precisely what construction management is all about.

The third point we will talk about is "options!" Yes the key to a successful project manager is one who always has a Plan B or an Option B. In construction there are so many different dynamics at play that things don't usually work out as planned. A sub-contractor may commit to a certain task then suddenly disappear.

Your material supplier may commit delivery to you on a specific date but then at the last moment tell you that it would take another 2 weeks for him to source it for you. These things are commonplace and to safeguard yourself in these situations always have a backup of vendors for the same job, just in case required. Having a backup would mean instant replacement and instant replacement would ensure that the task is carried out in time.

Managing a project as you can see requires way more to it than you initially thought. The 3 points above are just the tip of the iceberg in this complex and exciting discussion.We will further analyze important points on construction management in our next article.

See how project management plays an important role while building a house.

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